La ilaha illa ILLAAHu ALLAAHu Akbar
(There is no God But ALLAAH, ALLAAH is great.)
InshaALLAAH, I will be trying to explain only through ahadeeth and the opinion of scholars
(1) Placing Hands on Chest. what is the evidence & it’s authenticity?
The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) used to place his right hand on his left hand, then he folded them strictly on his chest in prayer.
Sunan Abi Dawud 759
Opinion of scholars :
(a)classified as sahih by shyk al-albani
(b)it’s sanad (chain of narrators) is classified as Hasan(good) by Imam Ahmed(may ALLAAH have mercy on him) 226/5 & He said it is saheeh ahadeeth
other references supporting this hadeeth :Ibn Khuzaimah-Hadith:479; bayhaqi-Hadith:2335,2337; Musnad-e-Ahmad Hadith:18398, Hadith:18371 & Hadith:18397
(2) Placing hands above the naval. Evidence & authenticity?
Jarir ad-Dabbi reported:
I saw Ali (Allah be pleased with him) catching hold of his left hand) by his right hand on the wrist above the navel.
Sunan Abi Dawud 757
opinion of scholars
(a)classified hasan (good) by Darrusalam
(b) Abu Dawood (may ALLAAH have mercy on him) said : ” This is also narrated from Abu Hurairah (may ALLAAH be pleased with him), but it is not strong.
(c) Imam Bukhari (may ALLAAH have mercy on him) suspended this hadeeth
(d) This is also found in saheeha under name of the chapter : one “Actions in Prayer”
Overall, this hadeeth has less authenticity than above hadeeth from majority of scholars
(3) placing hands below the naval. evidence & authenticity?
It was reported from Hafs ibn ghiyas from ABDUR REHMAN BIN ISHAQ AL-KUFI from ZIYAD BIN ZAYD from Abu Juhayfah who said: Ali said that it is a sunnah to place one hand on the other in prayer below the navel.
Sunan Abi Dawud 756
opinion of scholars :
(a) Abdullah bin Ahmed (son of imam Ahmed) in his zawaid al-musnad 110/1, narrated this hadith from ABDUR REHMAN BIN ISHAQ AL-KUFI and he is WEAK
(b) Al-Jumoorah ( Group of scholars) classified him as Weak
(c) Abu Dãwud said: I heard Ahmad bin Hambal mentioning ‘Abdur-Rahman bin Ishaaq Al-KUfi to be weak (in narrating Ahãdith).
(d) ZIYAD BIN ZAYD is Majhool(unknown)
Overall, This hadith has weak sanad (chain of narrators)
conclusion : placing both hands on chest is authentic narration for both men and women
ALL Praise is to ALLAAH alone
ALLAAH knows best