Surah Al-Jumua(62), Verse 1:
يُسَبِّحُ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ الْمَلِكِ الْقُدُّوسِ الْعَزِيزِ الْحَكِيمِ
Whatever is in the heavens and on earth, doth declare the Praises and Glory of Allah,- the Sovereign, the Holy One, the Exalted in Might, the Wise.
(English – Yusuf Ali)
(1) Hadith which state to pray after sun has passed the zenith
(a) Iyas b. Salama b. al-Akwa’ reported on the authority of his father:We used to observe the Friday prayer with the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) when the sun passed the meridian. and we then returned and tried to find out afternoon shadow (of the walls for protecting themselves from the heat of the sun).
Reference : Saheeh Muslim 860 a
(b) Narrated Anas bin Malik:The Prophet (ﷺ) used to offer the Jumua prayer immediately after midday.
Reference : Sahih al-Bukhari 904
The majority of Hanafi, Maaliki and Shaafa‘i scholars are of the view that Jumu‘ah prayer cannot be offered until after the sun has passed the zenith, which is the beginning of the time for Zuhr prayer.
reference: al-Umm 1/223; al-Majmoo‘ 4/377-381; al-Mawsoo‘ah al-Fiqhiyyah 27/197-198.
(2) Hadith which state the permissibility before sun has passed it’s zenith and the respective scholarly opinion
(a) Jabir b. ‘Abdullah reported:
This indicates that he prayed it before the sun passed its zenith.
Al-Bukhaari (939) and Muslim (859) narrated that Sahl ibn Sa‘d (may Allah be pleased with him) said: We used not to take a nap or eat lunch until after Jumu‘ah at the time of the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him).
Ash-Shawkaani (may Allah have mercy on him) said:
This provides evidence for those who say that it is permissible to pray Jumu‘ah before the sun passes its zenith. That was the view of Ahmad ibn Hanbal.
Their argument is that the time for lunch and the mid-day nap is before the sun passes its zenith. They narrated from Ibn Qutaybah that he said: It is not called lunch or mid-day nap after the sun has passed its zenith.
reference : Nayl al-Awtaar (3/319)
(3) We may reconcile between the hadiths by noting that the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) used to pray it after the sun had passed the zenith most of the time, but he prayed it shortly before the sun passed the zenith on some occasions.
Based on that, it is better to pray it after the sun has passed its zenith, following what the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) used to do most of the time, and so as to avoid an area of scholarly differences of opinion. This is what indicates that this is a matter of ijtihaad and that it is broad in scope. But for those who pray it shortly before the sun passes its zenith, their prayer is valid, in sha Allah, especially if they have a valid excuse, such as that mentioned by the questioner. End quote.
reference – Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa’imah : 8/216-217
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ALLAAH knows best