My question is about the time for prayer; the time begins when the adhaan is given, but when does the time end? Is there a difference between delaying prayer and missing the time for prayer? And what is the punishment for both?.

ANSWER

La ilaha illa LLAAH

I will divide this into 3 parts

Part – I

the time begins when the adhaan is given, but when does the time end?

In reality the adhaan is not the factor of the beginning of time for prayer in fact prophet sometimes used to delay adhaan than the regular time. But there are certain standard time of salah given in the hadith.you can check them in this video “Timings for salah”

https://www.facebook.com/pg/what.is.the.islaam/videos/?ref=page_internal

Abu Musa narrated on the authority of his father that a person came to the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) for inquiring about the times of prayers. He (the Holy Prophet) gave him no reply (because he wanted to explain to him the times by practically observing these prayers). He then said the morning player when it was daybreak, but the people could hardly recognise one another. He then commanded and the Iqama for the noon prayer was pronounced when the tan had passed the meridian and one would say that it was midday but he (the Holy Prophet) knew batter than them. He then again commanded and the Iqama for the afternoon prayer was pronounced when the sun was high. He then commanded and Iqama for the evening prayer was pronounced when the sun had sunk. He then commanded and Iqama for the night prayer was pronounced when the twilight had disappeared. He then delayed the morning prayer on the next day (so much so) that after returning from it one would say that the sun had risen or it was about to rise. He then delayed the noon prayer till it was near the time of afternoon prayer (as it was observed yesterday). He then delayed the afternoon prayer till one after returning from it would say that the sun had become red. He then delayed the evening prayer till the twilight was about to disappear. He then delayed the night prayer till it was one-third of the night. He then called the inquirer in the morning and said:

The time for prayers is between these two (extremes).
Saheeh Muslim 614
In this hadith prophet clearly mentioned the beginning and ending times of prayer
Part -2
Is there a difference between delaying prayer and missing the time for prayer?
There is major difference between these two.
(a)If you have prayed any fard prayer beyond its regular time but you have completed it before its ending time it is called “Delaying prayer” infact prophet did in some necessary conditions like for example :

Abu Huraira reported that the Messenger of Allah (may peace he upon him) said:

When it is very hot, say (the noon prayer) when the extreme heat passes away, for intensity of heat is from the exhalation of Hell.
Reference : saheeh Muslim 615
prophet delayed zhur prayer beyond the regular time because of intense heat.
(b) Missings the time of prayer
If you missed the time beyond the limit of time given for the prayers then it can be said as “Missing the time of prayer” but it should not be except in unintentional cases like sleeping or forgetting or any other unavoidable necessary work. He should complete that missed prayer when he has remembered or got free from that unavoidable necessary work.
Narrated / Authority Of: Anas
“The Messenger of Allah (saw) was asked about a man who slept and missed the prayer, or forgot it. He said: ‘The expiation for that is to pray it when he remembers it.’” (Sahih)
Reference : Sunan an-Nasa’i 615
Part – 3
And what is the punishment for both?.
ALLAAH will not punish anyone who did in unintentional cases
 Surah Al-Ahzab(33), Verse 5:
…But there is no blame on you if ye make a mistake therein: (what counts is) the intention of your hearts: and Allah is Oft-Returning, Most Merciful.
(English – Yusuf Ali)
But if anyone misses or delays prayer intentionally or with lazyness or without any necessary excuses there many warnings and punishment for him or her
(a) It was also narrated from the Sahaabah [companions of the Prophet – may Allaah be pleased with them all].The great Taabi’i ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Shaqeeq al-‘Aqeeli said: “The Companions of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did not think that omitting anything constituted kufr apart from prayer.”

(b) Surah An-Nisa(4), Verse 142:

إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ يُخَادِعُونَ اللَّهَ وَهُوَ خَادِعُهُمْ وَإِذَا قَامُوا إِلَى الصَّلَاةِ قَامُوا كُسَالَىٰ يُرَاءُونَ النَّاسَ وَلَا يَذْكُرُونَ اللَّهَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا

Verily, the hypocrites seek to deceive Allah, but it is He Who deceives them. And when they stand up for As-Salat (the prayer), they stand with laziness and to be seen of men, and they do not remember Allah but little.
(English – Mohsin Khan)

(c)  Surah Al-Maun(107), Verse 4-5

(4)So woe unto those performers of Salat (prayers) (hypocrites)

(5) Who delay their Salat (prayer) from their stated fixed times,

(English – Mohsin Khan)

(d) Surah Al-Muddathir(77), Verse 43:

قَالُوا لَمْ نَكُ مِنَ الْمُصَلِّينَ

They will say: “We were not of those who used to offer their Salat (prayers)
(English – Mohsin Khan)

This can also be meant for those people who we have mentioned above.

(e) In some other authentic narration there is punishment of  ” crushing of head with stone ” for these people

Alhamdulillah

ALLAAH knows best

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